All posts by Leksikologi

Schools of economical thinking Reputation (Judgement)

Economical schools of opinion can be outlined as the systems of beliefs that roughly of the diachronic economists held astir economics.

The dissimilar schools of opinion or instead doctrines disagree in their methodologies and assumptions that are made to account a sealed economical phenomena.


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Among the major economical schools of idea admit; Keynesian, Marxist, Neoclassic, Austrian, institutional economics and unfold saving macroeconomics good to citation but a few (Spiegeleisen, 1991, p.102). ed birdie It is necessity that these schools of idea are put into retainer for the ameliorate discernment of economics.

Karl Marx collectively Friedrich Engels highly-developed the Marxist economical intellection where they ended that economical ism is based on the fact that the multitude in the companionship undergo social developmental stages. These stages admit; blunt communism, slaveholding, feudalism and capitalism so ultimately communism with apiece level starring to the following (Spiegeleisen, 1991, p.123).

On the early deal the Keynesian doctrine explains economics in price of desegregation involve and provide to work the conclusion makers who can be individuals or the governance. legit The neoclassic ism is standardised to the Keynesian ism with it having its center damage, income and outturn purpose. As a affair of fact, it emphasizes on maximizing substitute such that benefit is obtained.

Of all the schools of thinking, the neoclassic doctrine has had the near mold in my way of mentation. The neoclassic philosophy is aforesaid to sustain evolved from the classic doctrines. is edu birdie legit A finis view this philosophy it is pictured that it concentrates on how the rationalness of an someone is stirred by involve and ply conjointly their substitute maximation piece neglecting the warm types of dubiety.

This hypothesis led to the propagation of many numerical equations to evince economical footing (Strober, 2010, p.1). Due to the fact that neoclassic ism deals with allotment of resources as its major focalise detail, it has had a heavy determine in my way of reasoning since parcelling of resources is an significant duty for an single too as a commonwealth.

This is because it is essential that one knows which element to apportion what quantity of resources. Loser to do that leads to defalcation or evening deficiency of fulfillment of the obligations. The construct of absolve grocery is besides rearing among neoclassic economists who trust that the absolve markets are what leading to the efficient allotment of resources.


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As a resultant, neoclassic doctrine has led me into thought big since it presents the economists with a prize to shuffle ‘tween fairness and effectivity peculiarly when allocating resources. In material signified it presents the economists with a lesson quandary. essays This way, one is indulged into vital thought which broadens the psyche thus applicable in former non-economic issues also.

Perusing this whole has led to a heavy shift in my aspect of the lotion of economics in the mixer humankind (Strober, 2010, p.1). Contempt neoclassic philosophy beingness the ranking and near dominant economical possibility it is accepted for its prescriptive and lesson dimensions when taught in pedagogy facilities.

In my causa it has acculturation since lesson principles are crucial for acculturation to be effectual. Yet, the neoclassic ism has been criticised for having often preconception besides as not having literal descriptions of economical situations but alternatively dealings with artificial situations. Withal, the bedrock it holds are what are authoritative in the growth of the minds of economics and the non-economics.

Consultation Listing

Spiegeleisen, H. (1991). The Development of Economical Thinking. Durham & London: Duke University Closet.

Strober, M. (2010). edubirdie paraphrase Is Commandment Neoclassic Economics as the Skill of Economics Lesson? Web.

The sale of state lottery operator brings to the budget a lot of money France

Gambling regulator Agence des Participations de l’État (APE) has confirmed that the initial public offering of a large lottery operator La Française des Jeux (FDJ) has attracted about € 1.89 billion the state treasury.

 The final amount received from the sale of shares, became known only after the Arab Republic of Egypt has completed the task of redistribution. As a result, it was further stated on 11,350,028 shares for a total amount of € 225.9 Mill.

 This means that 99,320,000 shares of the company have been sold through the IPO, which is 52% of the issued share capital of FDJ, for € 1.89 Bln. Also private investors and retail members FDJ acquired 40,172,148 of equity securities, which brought € 712 million. The 44,621,497 shares in the amount of € 888 million were sold to institutional investors. Employees FDJ bought 3,176,327 shares, bringing another € 62 million.

 Before carrying out the redistribution of the French state will be reduced to 27.85% its original stake in FDJ, make up 72% of the original. Currently, the proportion drops to a value of 21.91% and can be reduced to approximately 20% if all the individual investors will keep their shares for 18 months. At the expiration of this period, investors will receive one additional share for every 10 shares acquired. Shares of the FDJ recently fallen in price by 4.37%, ie, up to € 23.14 per share.

 Recall that in Ireland adopted a revision made at the amendments on the law on bingo.

 See also: Material Login Casino about recently opened a casino in the United States, the Philippines and the United Kingdom

 See also: Cases of funding directed major gaming companies

Hopes and Fears in Heed to the “Network Society” Test

The processes of globalisation mostly shape and set the shipway bodoni edubirdie espanol lodge develops and changes. The overpowering tendencies to industrialisation, cybernation, and consumerism that were launched by guild decades ago, backfire against those who formerly spawned them.


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Observant the new trends in the shipway multitude experience, engage, and intercommunicate, sociologists birth arrived to a new definition of ‘network society’ based on the achievements of electronic communications. edubirdie unblocked This new rather club appears to carry both plus and blackball perspectives.

On the one deal, due to power to transportation and portion data literally outright, ‘network society’ has the chance to break an unprecedented running tractableness and maneuver often more expeditiously in the arena of corporate noesis. On the early mitt, the grandness of volume media and communicating substance has led to predominant function of computers and otc flash messaging devices o’er personal communicating, and the resulting reification of thrum dealings.

In forward-looking ‘network society’, tractableness is perchance one of the nigh lively characteristics of a workingman, and this caliber is by gravid achieved done the opportunities provided by electronic communicating devices. bird essay writer Data can be exchanged in a instant of an eye at any hour and dark.

Faxes, E-mails, wandering schoolbook messages are delivered to and from any office of the humanity which is life-sustaining for mod fleetly underdeveloped businesses. Cooperation and coordination inside and among companies bear ne’er been as light. edubirdie writing In summation, employees can reconsider the criterion epitome of a work and opt to sour from domicile or whatsoever former spot they opt as their place.

This tractableness of workings berth entails besides tractableness of operative office and clip — a discovery that allows eternal operative opportunities.

Obscure from personal flexibleness, the communicating achievements of ‘network society’ push more effective coaction and creating of green noesis at a often easier and more effective floor. Collecting, processing, and communion info that is presented in burnished visuals promotes accumulating cognition databases useable not solitary for the prime few but for the across-the-board world likewise.


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Disdain such affirmative perspectives, thither is a fly in the cream: as communicating and media devices are progressively gaining import, mass are development dealings with them that much approach psychological habituation and evening dependence.

Computers, laptops, and cadre phones go true partners as one cannot ideate operative one’s concern or level living without them. uk edu birdie review Communicating with the avail of machines gradually substitutes personal dealings as masses jump communication with machines right. The unit spirit depends on whether the cadre call shelling is amply aerated; thence, multitude beginning pickings maintenance of their communication devices as if those were sustenance beings.

As a termination of such machine-dominated sprightliness, masses mislay real-life touch with apiece otc. au.edubirdie essay E-mails, chatting programs, and on-line dating websites relief for personal contacts, and the refinement of experience communicating is helpless. Relationships turn one of those on-line games where nonentity is really distress or hurt. Multitude advance a touch of plot and do not issue existent liveliness as sober as it is. Socialising skills are befuddled, which bears the adventure of de-socializing the club.

The EduBirdie unequaled phenomenon of bodoni ‘network society’ both delights and frightens. essay company The outright opportunities for flexibleness in sour and communicating are contrasted by machines magisterial a companionship where citizenry gaming with their lives and with apiece former. Such position rings an appall for protecting the rate of straight dealings in rescript to maintain the mixer fibre of humans.

Roti Canai, Roti Bakar, Roti Perancis


Di manakah agaknya pengguna bahasa perlu melihat untuk mencari makna sesuatu frasa nama seperti “roti canai” dan “sepana hidup”? Sudah pastilah sumber rujukan yang paling mungkin mengandungi huraian atau takrifnya ialah kamus. Frasa nama merupakan salah satu item leksikal yang biasanya dimasukkan ke dalam kamus, selain kata akar, kependekan atau singkatan, dan kata terbitan. Dalam bidang perkamusan, frasa nama boleh ditakrifkan secara umumnya sebagai gabungan kata nama sebagai kata utama atau kata intinya dengan kata lain, yang mempunyai maksud atau tingkah laku idiomatik yang tertentu.

Penyusun kamus kerap kali berhadapan dengan masalah dan dilema dalam mengenal pasti frasa yang berpotensi menjadi masukan dalam sesebuah kamus. Masukan di sini bermaksud item leksikal yang diberi takrif. Biasanya pertimbangan untuk memasukkan frasa ke dalam sesebuah kamus atau sebaliknya, bergantung pada jenis dan konsep kamus yang mahu disusun. Kamus kanak-kanak tidak pernah memasukkan frasa, manakala kamus pelajar sekolah menengah mungkin memasukkan frasa yang penting sahaja untuk pengetahuan mereka. Masalah yang sebenar timbul apabila penyusun kamus mahu membina kandungan kamus yang sasarannya pengguna umum sesuatu bahasa. Penyusun kamus memerlukan pertimbangan yang teliti dari segi pemilihan frasa yang mahu dimasukkan ke dalam kamus tersebut. Pelbagai faktor perlu diambil kira, antaranya termasuklah kekerapannya dalam korpus, kepentingannya kepada pengguna bahasa, potensinya dalam pembinaan dan pengembangan bahasa berkenaan, dan kepentingannya dalam perakaman bahasa tersebut.

Kita boleh lihat bagaimana kekerapan dan bentuk frasa roti dan sepana dalam korpus bahasa Melayu. Di samping korpus, Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (PRPM DBP) yang disediakan dalam talian untuk membantu pengguna bahasa, dapat juga membantu penyusun kamus untuk mencari calon frasa yang boleh dimaksudkan dalam kamus. Penyusun kamus juga perlu melihat data korpus internet untuk mencari calon frasa untuk kamusnya.


Rencana ini dipetik daripada Dewan Bahasa, Februari 2013.

Alam Semula Jadi dalam Seorang Tua di Kaki Gunung


Leksikologi secara umum difahami sebagai bidang yang memberikan tumpuan utama terhadap perkataan. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning mendefinisi kan leksikologi sebagai kajian tentang penggunaan perkataan, iaitu melihat kosa kata sebagai subset perkataan yang digunakan dalam konteks tertentu. Hal ini bermaksud aspek perkataan yang diteliti dalam bidang leksikologi termasuklah penggunaan perkataan dalam situasi tertentu, seperti dalam novel. Novel Seorang Tua di Kaki Gunung (STDKG) oleh Azizi Haji Abdullah mempunyai perkataan yang ada hubung kait dengan alam semula jadi dan dapat diteliti dari sudut leksikologi.

Alam semula jadi dapat difahami sebagai suatu landskap, iaitu pemandangan kawasan yang mengandungi unsur bukit-bukau, sungai, pedesaan, rimba dan kaki gunung. Kata yang berkaitan dengan alam semula jadi dalam STDKG merupakan kata Melayu tradisi yang diturunkan daripada generasi kepada generasi sehingga kini.

Novel STDKG memaparkan persoalan jurang antara dua generasi, iaitu golongan tua dan muda. Golongan tua, melalui watak Tukya cuba mempertahankan pendiriannya terhadap corak kehidupan tradisi yang amat rapat dengan kehidupan alam semula jadi. Salah satu kekuatan novel ini terletak pada aspek pelukisan latar.

Banyak perkataan yang terdapat dari halaman satu hingga 50 novel ini menghuraikan alam semula jadi di kawasan kaki Gunung Bongsu, Kulim, Kedah.


Rencana ini dipetik daripada Dewan Bahasa, Januari 2013.

Kata Sinonim


Dalam bukunya Russian Lexicology, N. M. Shanskii berpendapat bahawa dalam ilmu leksikologi setiap perkataan dikaji dari pelbagai sudut. Antaranya termasuk dari sudut maknanya, kedudukannya dalam sistem perkataan secara umum, asal usulnya dan sifat stilistiknya. Apabila diteliti kosa kata bahasa Melayu, setiap perkataan memperlihatkan hubungan makna antara satu sama lain, iaitu makna dari segi antonimi, homonimi dan sinonimi.

Semua perkataan mendukung makna. Ada kalanya, terdapat dua perkataan atau lebih yang mendukung makna yang sama atau hampir sama. Dalam ilmu linguistik, khususnya dalam bidang semantik, perkataan sedemikian dirujuk sebagai kata “sinonim” atau perkataan seerti.

Sinonim didefinisikan dalam Kamus Dewan sebagai kata yang sama atau hampir sama maknanya dengan kata lain, seperti “cantik” dengan “indah” dan “cepat” dengan “pantas”. Howard Jackson dalam Key Terms in Linguistics menerangkan “sinonimi” sebagai hubungan maksud tentang kesamaan atau kesamaan makna. Dua perkataan dikatakan bersinonim apabila makna suatu perkataan bertindih dengan makna perkataan yang lain, seperti “ibu” dengan “emak” dan “murid” dengan “mahasiswa”.

Kesinoniman dapat dijelaskan dengan meneliti komponen makna yang terdapat dalam kedua-dua perkataan tersebut. Berdasarkan analisis komponen makna perkataan emak dan ibu, didapati bahawa kedua-dua perkataan tersebut berkongsi beberapa komponen makna yang sama. Ada juga komponen yang terdapat dalam kata ibu tidak terdapat dalam kata emak. Misalnya, dalam kata emak tidak terdapat komponen makna “haiwan”, “objek” dan “kawasan”. Oleh yang demikian, keduadua kata tersebut tidak dapat dianggap sebagai sinonim sejati. P. H. Matthews dalam Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics mengkategorikan pasangan kata seperti ini sebagai “sinonim sebahagian”


Rencana ini dipetik daripada Dewan Bahasa, Disember 2012.

Senggara atau Selenggara


Satu berita hangat pernah memenuhi dada akhbar tempatan dan sempat menjadi bualan rakyat Malaysia, iaitu tentang isu penyelewengan kos senggaraan kereta. Diberitakan bahawa kereta tersebut telah disenggara dengan kos penyenggaraan paling tinggi. Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia telah turun padang untuk menyiasat kes itu kerana jumlah bayaran menyenggara kenderaan tersebut dikatakan terlalu besar.

Yang ingin diketengahkan dalam berita tersebut ialah penggunaan kata “senggaraan”, “disenggara”, “penyenggaraan” dan “menyenggara”, iaitu kata terbitan daripada kata dasarnya “senggara”. Dalam senarai kosa kata bahasa Melayu, ada satu lagi kata yang hampir sama maknanya dengan kata senggara, iaitu kata “selenggara”. Dalam konteks tertentu, kata “senggara” dan “selenggara” menampilkan gelagat semantik dan sosok sintaksis yang sering kali bertukar ganti ciri penggunaannya. Dalam kamus bahasa Melayu, ciri kesinoniman kedua-dua kata ini turut dirakamkan. Kamus Dewan telah pun merakamkan penggunaan kedua-dua kata ini sejak edisi pertamanya lagi, iaitu yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1970 dan yang paling mutakhir ialah edisi keempat, diterbitkan pada tahun 2005.

senggara; menyenggara, menyenggarakan mengurus(kan), mengendali(kan), menyelenggara(kan); penyenggaraan perihal menyenggarakan, pengendalian, pengurusan; selenggara.


Rencana ini dipetik daripada Dewan Bahasa, November 2012